History Early history In bc the Persian warrior-king Darius Iwho ruled the largest empire and commanded the best army in the world, bowed to the hit-and-run tactics of the nomadic Scythian s and left them to their lands beyond the Danube. The Macedonian king Alexander the Great — bc also fought serious guerrilla opposition, which he overcame by modifying his tactics and by winning important tribes to his side.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The French 6th Army, under M. He therefore ordered the 2nd Army to retreat, thus obliging Kluck to do likewise with the 1st. The counterattack of the French 5th and 6th armies and the BEF developed into a general counterattack by the entire left and centre of the French army.
This counterattack is known as the First Battle of the Marne. By September 11 the German retreat extended to all the German armies. There were several reasons for this extraordinary turn of events. Chief among them was the utter exhaustion of the German soldiery of the right wing, some of whom had marched more than miles kilometres under conditions of frequent battle.
Their fatigue was ultimately a by-product of the Schlieffen Plan itself, for while the retreating French had been able to move troops by rail to various points within the circle formed by the front, the German troops had found their advance hampered by demolished bridges and destroyed rail lines.
Their food and ammunition supply was consequently restricted, and the troops also had to make their advance by foot. Moreover, the Germans had underestimated the resilient spirit of the French troops, who had maintained their courage and morale and their confidence in their commanders.
This fact was strikingly evidenced by the comparatively small number of prisoners taken by the Germans in the course of what was undeniably a precipitous French retreat. Meanwhile, the assault by the German 6th and 7th armies on the defenses of the French eastern frontier had already proved a predictably expensive failure, and the German attempt at a partial envelopment pivoted on Verdun was abandoned.
The German right wing withdrew northward from the Marne and made a firm stand along the Lower Aisne River and the Chemin des Dames ridge. Along the Aisne the preponderant power of the defense over the offense was reemphasized as the Germans repelled successive Allied attacks from the shelter of trenches.
The First Battle of the Marne succeeded in pushing the Germans back for a distance of 40 to 50 miles and thus saved the capital city of Paris from capture. In this respect it was a great strategic victory, since it enabled the French to renew their confidence and to continue the war.
But the great German offensive, though unsuccessful in its object of knocking France out of the war, had enabled the Germans to capture a large portion of northeastern France. The Belgian army, meanwhile, had fallen back to the fortress city of Antwerpwhich ended up behind the German lines.
The Germans began a heavy bombardment of Antwerp on September 28, and Antwerp surrendered to the Germans on October Erich von Falkenhaynhowever, who on September 14 had succeeded Moltke as chief of the German general staffhad foreseen what was coming and had prepared a counterplan: The British attack was launched from Ypres on October 19, the German thrust the next day.
The Battle of Ypres had its worst crises on October 31 and November 11 and did not die down into trench warfare until November By the end of the casualties the French had so far sustained in the war totaled aboutkilled andwounded; the Germans had lost a slightly smaller number.
With the repulse of the German attempt to break through at the Battle of Ypres, the strained and exhausted armies of both sides settled down into trench warfare.Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from initiativeblog.com most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War initiativeblog.com has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges, and futility in conflict.
May 21, · Guerrilla warfare: Guerrilla warfare, type of warfare fought by irregulars in fast-moving, small-scale actions against orthodox military and police forces and, on occasion, against rival insurgent forces, either independently or in conjunction with a .
Mar 27, · Trench warfare reached its highest development on the Western Front during World War I (–18), when armies of millions of men faced each other in a line of trenches extending from the Belgian coast through northeastern France to Switzerland.
World War 1 Guns Allies vs Central Powers Rifle s On July 28, , the belligerents began a struggle that would lead to battlefield deaths of almost 9,, men and a total of 16 million people on three continents. The primary cause of death was a new generation of World War 1 guns.
Weapons of War - Bayonets According to tradition the bayonet was developed in Bayonne, France, in the early 17th century. That it was still apparently in commonplace use during the First World War may seem incongruous when compared to leaps in technological warfare typified by .
World War 1 is perhaps best known for being a war fought in trenches (Grolier 94), ditches dug out of the ground to give troops protection from enemy artillery and machine-gun fire.
In Erich Remarque's novel All Quite on the Western Front that is exactly how he described trench warfare. Rem.