How to Write a Summary of an Article? Factional Distillation of Crude Oil 8. Crude oil is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years ago — most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds. Crude oils vary in colour, from clear to tar-black, and in viscosity, from water to almost solid.
Distillation columns in an oil refinery Photo courtesy Phillips Petroleum The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation.
The steps of fractional distillation are as follows: You heat the mixture of two or more substances liquids with different boiling points to a high temperature.
The mixture boils, forming vapor gases ; most substances go into the vapor phase. The vapor enters the bottom of a long column fractional distillation column that is filled with trays or plates. The trays have many holes or bubble caps like a loosened cap on a soda bottle in them to allow the vapor to pass through.
There is a temperature difference across the column hot at the bottom, cool at the top. The vapor rises in the column. As the vapor rises through the trays in the column, it cools. The substance with the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; substances with higher boiling points will condense lower in the column.
The trays collect the various liquid fractions. This content is not compatible on this device.
The oil refining process starts with a fractional distillation column. On the right, you can see several chemical processors that are described in the next section. Very few of the components come out of the fractional distillation column ready for market.
Many of them must be chemically processed to make other fractions. Rather than continually distilling large quantities of crude oil, oil companies chemically process some other fractions from the distillation column to make gasoline; this processing increases the yield of gasoline from each barrel of crude oil.Essay Distillation and Fraction Distillation Lab Report; Due to having different boiling points the substances in the crude oil can be separated if/by using fractional distillation.
The crude oil is braked down and its steam condenses at different temperatures in the fractionating column. More about Essay Distillation and Fraction. * Fractional Distillation glassware and thermometer * Clamp stand x 2 We will write a custom essay sample on Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil specifically for you.
The specific method for this separation in crude oil is known as fractional distillation. Fractional distillation is carried out by heating the petroleum to °C. As every hydrocarbon in petroleum has it a particular boiling point, by doing so, they will separate out and then be collected.
Did you know that fractional distillation is commonly practiced by oil refineries using crude oil for the production of gasoline fuel? In this lesson, learn .
Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the fractionating column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units.
The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation.
The steps of fractional.