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Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. The king had previously invited although not formally commissioned the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in It took him twenty days to sail across the ocean.
Starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, areas that now comprise the Describe the beach essay Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St.
Cartier's first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Baymost likely the Mi'kmaqwere brief; some trading occurred. Lawrence Iroquoianswhere on July 24, he planted a cross to claim the land for France. The change in mood was a clear indication that the Iroquoians understood Cartier's actions.
Here he kidnapped the two sons of their captain. The natives' captain at last agreed that they could be taken, under the condition that they return with European goods to trade.
Second voyage, — Route of Cartier's second voyage. This Spanish chart of the Saint Lawrence Riverfrom ca. Lawrence, he sailed up-river for the first time, and reached the Iroquoian capital of Stadaconawhere Chief Donnacona ruled.
Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, and a crowd of over a thousand came to the river edge to greet the Frenchmen. The site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault — where the bridge named after him now stands.
The expedition could proceed no further, as the river was blocked by rapids.
So certain was Cartier that the river was the Northwest Passage and that the rapids were all that was preventing him from sailing to China, that the rapids and the town that eventually grew up near them came to be named after the French word for China, La Chine: It is not known exactly when he decided to spend the winter of — in Stadacona, and it was by then too late to return to France.
Cartier and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, and salting down game and fish. From mid-November to mid-Aprilthe French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St.
Charles Riverunder the Rock of Quebec. Ice was over a fathom 1. To add to the misery, scurvy broke out — first among the Iroquoians, and then among the French. Cartier estimated the number of dead Iroquoians at On a visit by Domagaya to the French fort, Cartier inquired and learned from him that a concoction made from a tree known as anneddaprobably Spruce beer or arbor vitae, would cure scurvy.
This remedy likely saved the expedition from destruction, allowing 85 Frenchmen to survive the winter. In his journal, Cartier states that by mid-February, "out of that we were, not ten were well enough to help the others, a pitiful thing to see". The Frenchmen used up the bark of an entire tree in a week on the cure, and the dramatic results prompted Cartier to proclaim it a Godsend, and a miracle.
After an arduous trip down the St.What Is a Descriptive Essay? The descriptive essay asks the writer to describe something—an object, person, place, experience, emotion, or situation.
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