Evidence from a systematic review of all relevant randomized controlled trials RCT'sor evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCT's Level II:
What is a Systematic Review? Frequently there will have been more than one study addressing a particular health question. In such circumstances it is logical to collect all these studies together and base conclusions on the cumulated results.
However the same scientific principles as would be expected in the original studies need to be applied to the identification, sorting and analysis of potentially relevant studies.
This is what is meant by a systematic review. The most obvious sign that a review is systematic will be the presence of a methods section.
Meta-analysis is the statistical process of combining the results from several studies that is often part of a systematic review.
An RCT is a type of interventional or experimental study design. Participants individuals or groups are randomly allocated to receive either the new intervention being tested or a control treatment usually the standard treatment or a placebo.
Each arm of the study is then followed up and the amount or severity of the disease measured in the intervention group and compared with the control group. RCTs are by definition prospective.
What is a Qualitative study? A qualitative study examines the experiences and beliefs of people from their own perspective. It can take many forms including in-depth interviews and focus-groups with analysis attempting to identify underlying themes.
Verbatim quotes of participants can be used to illustrate these themes. What is a Cohort study? A cohort study, also known as a follow-up or longitudinal study, is another observational study design.
In this study a population who do not have the health outcome or disease of interest are first divided into those who are exposed to a risk factor and those who are not. Alternatively exposed and unexposed populations may be chosen separately.
Irrespective, both groups are then followed, often over long periods of time.
At the end of the period of observation the incidence of disease or frequency of health outcome in the exposed group is compared to that in the unexposed group.
The study is generally prospective as it looks forward from potential cause to consequence. What is a Case-Control study?Critical Appraisal of the Evidence: Part II Digging deeper—examining the “keeper” studies. This is the sixth article in a series from the Arizona State University College of Nursing .
Presentation of two different appraisal processes covers both the traditional in-depth critical appraisal process that prepares you for graduate-level work in research, and the concise, practice-focused research appraisal process that equips you for quick and accurate evaluation of the applicability of research findings to clinical practice.
Start studying Chapter Critical Appraisal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research for Nursing Practice. Learn vocabulary, terms, and . Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 2: qualitative research Abstract Key words: Critical appraisal n Qualitative research Q School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin Accepted for publication: March Understanding and critiquing qualitative research papers 18 July, The first article in this series on understanding research (Lee, a) examined the basic terminology used by researchers and identified that qualitative research produced non-numerical (qualitative) data.
Research critique is a careful critical appraisal of the study’s strength and limitations focusing on whether the findings are accurate, believable and clinically meaningful (Polit and Beck, ).