Attitud es sztereotipiak essay

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Attitud es sztereotipiak essay

Did Wom en H ave a Ren aissance? Did Wom en H ave a Ren ais san ce? Adultery, after all, required cert ain precautions; but that did n ot alt er the essen tially er otic n ature ev en of "p ure" love, which went "as far as th e kiss a nd th e e m brace and the m odest contact with the nude lov er, omitting the final solace " p.

This is n ot to rais e the fruitless question of whether suc h love relationships actua lly existed or if they were mer e literary convention s.

But thi s could h appen only if such id eas supported the mal e-dominated social orde r ra the r than subverted it.

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The love motif cou ld, an d w ith Gottfried of Str asbourg's Tristan c. While co u r tly love celeb ra ted sexuality, it enriched an d d eepened it b y means of the Christi an n oti on of p assi on.

And w h ile passiona te love led to ad u ltery, by that ver y fact it reinforced, as its necessary premiseth e p ractice of p oliti cal m arriage. Th e literature of courtly love su p p ressed rathe r th an exaggera te d tensions between it an d other social values, an d the reason for this lies deeper than literature.

Feu da lism, as a syste m of p rivate [urisdict ions.

Attitud es sztereotipiak essay

Eleanor of Aqu itain e's ad ulte ry as w ife ofthe king of Fra nce could h ave had d ire consequen ces in another place at an other time, say in th e En glan d of Henr y VIII. The lady p resided over th e court at such times, ad mi nis tere d the est ate s, took ch ar ge of the vassal se rvices due th e lord.

As 28 Did Wom en Have a Ren aissanc e? Emily James Putnam put it, " It wouldperhap s, be p aradoxical to sa y that a baron would prefer to be sure that his tenure w as secur e than that hi s son w as legitim ate, but it is certa in that the rel ative value of th e two things had shifted.

Especiall y as forms of inheritan ce favoring the eldest so n to ok h old in the course of the tw elfth century to pres er ve the great h ou ses, the claims of younger so ns an d d au ghter s p osed n o threat to family estates.

For all these rea sons, feudal Ch ristian soc iety co uld promot e the id eal of courtly love. Co ur tly love surely fit th ese requirements.

It gave wom en lovers, p ee rs rather than m asters; and it gave th em a justifyin g id eolo gy for ad u ltery which, as th e more custom ary d ouble sta n da rd indicates, men in patriarchal so cie ty seld om require.

Hence, we s hou ld exp ect what w e indeed find: In the first place, wom en participated in creating the literature of cour tly lov e, a m ajor literature of th eir er a. This role they h ad not bee n abl e to assu m e in th e culture of clas sical Greece or 29 Did Wom en Have a Ren aissanc e?

The n otable exce p tion of Sappho only proves th e point: H er sho r t tale s of romance, of te n ad ulterou s and always se xua l, have ca used her to be ranked by Fried rich Heer as one of the " three poets of ge n iu s" along with Chre tie n d e Tro yes and Ga u tie r d ' Arras who created th e roman courtois of the twelfth cen tury.

In ad d ition to di rect liter ar y exp res sion, women pr omot ed the ideas of courtl y love by w ay of patronage a nd th e di ver sions of their cour ts. This hold s for lesser ar istoc ra tic w om en as well as the grea t. But great noblew om ensu ch as Eleanor of Aquitaine an d M arie of Champagn e, Elean or's d aughter b y her firs t marria ge to Louis VII of Fra ncecould make th eir cou rts maj or cultu ral a n d social center s an d pl ay th er eb y a d ominant role in forming th e outlook and mores of th eir class.

When livin g apar t fro m Henry at her court in Poitier s, she and her d au ghter, Marie, tau ght th e ar ts of cou rtesy to a number of you ng wom en and men w ho later di sp ersed to va rious parts of France, England, Sicily, and Spa in, where th ey co ns titu te d the ruling nobility.

Eleanor's d au ghter, Marie of Cha m pag ne, was patron both of Andreas Ca pe llan us, her ch apl ain, and C hre tie n d e Troyes. But th ey could d o so on ly be cause they had ac tua l power to exert. Co u r tly lov e, which flourished outsid e th e institution of pat riarch al marriage, owed its possibilit y as well as its mod el to the d om in ant politi cal inst itution of feudal Europe that permitted actual vassa l h om age to be paid to women.

The Renaissan ce Lad y: Politics and C ulture Th e kind of eco no mic and polit ical power th at support ed th e cu ltural activity of fe uda l noblew omen in th e eleve n th and 31 Did Wom en Have a Ren aissan ce?

Th eir nobilit y h eld property but n o se ign iorial power, estat es but not jurisdiction. In deedin northern and cen tra l Italy, a nobilit y in the Eu ro pean sense hardly existed at all. In this soc iopolitical con tex t, th e exe rcise of politi cal power by wom en was far more ra re th an und er feuda lism or eve n u nd er th e tradition al kind of mon ar ch ical s ta te that developed ou t of feudali sm.

The tw o Giova n nas of Naple s, both qu eens in their ow n right, exe m p lify th is latt er typ e of rul e.We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy.

OK, I Understand. The positivefeedback bias as aresponse to self-image threat only the y, the par ticip ants, could conn ect their minor ity-related attitud es to their subseque nt feedback.

Tr ainees weretold that their job was to make com ments on the essay draft, which would be retur nedtothe wr iter.

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