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Outline[ edit ] For the purposes of this summary, it is convenient to divide the chronology of the universe since it originatedinto five parts. It is generally considered meaningless or unclear whether time existed before this chronology: It includes the Planck epochduring which currently understood laws of physics may not apply; the emergence in stages of the four known fundamental interactions or forces — first gravityand later the strongweak and electromagnetic interactions; and the expansion of space and supercooling of the still immensely hot universe due to cosmic inflationwhich is believed to have been triggered by the separation of the strong and electroweak interaction.
Tiny ripples in the universe at this stage are believed to be the basis of large-scale structures that formed much later. Different stages of the very early universe are understood to different extents. The earlier parts are beyond the grasp of practical experiments in particle physics but can be explored through other means.
The early universelasting aroundyears. Initially, various kinds of subatomic particles are formed in stages. These particles include almost equal amounts of matter and antimatterso most of it quickly annihilates, leaving a small excess of matter in the universe.
At about one second, neutrinos decouple ; these neutrinos form the cosmic neutrino background. If primordial black holes exist, they are also formed at about one second of cosmic time. Composite subatomic particles emerge — including protons and neutrons — and from about 3 minutes, conditions are suitable for nucleosynthesis: By 20 minutes, the universe is no longer hot enough for fusion, but far too hot for neutral atoms to exist or photons to travel far.
It is therefore an opaque plasma. At around 47, years,  as the universe cools, its behavior begins to be dominated by matter rather than radiation.
At aboutyears[ citation needed ], the universe finally becomes cool enough for neutral atoms to form " recombination "and as a result it also became transparent for the first time. The newly formed atoms — mainly hydrogen and helium with traces of lithium — quickly reach their lowest energy state ground state by releasing photons " photon decoupling "and these photons can still be detected today as the cosmic microwave background CMB.
This is currently the oldest observation we have of the universe. Dark Ages and large-scale structure emergencefromyears until about 1 billion years. After recombination and decouplingthe universe was transparent but the clouds of hydrogen only collapsed very slowly to form stars and galaxiesso there were no new sources of light.
The only photons electromagnetic radiation, or "light" in the universe were those released during decoupling visible today as the cosmic microwave background and 21 cm radio emissions occasionally emitted by hydrogen atoms.
The decoupled photons would have filled the universe with a brilliant pale orange glow at first, gradually redshifting to non-visible wavelengths after about 3 million years, leaving it without visible light.
This period is known as the Dark Ages. Between about 10 and 17 million years the universe's average temperature was suitable for liquid water — K and there has been speculation whether rocky planets or indeed life could have arisen briefly, since statistically a tiny part of the universe could have had different conditions from the rest, and gained warmth from the universe as a whole.
The earliest generations of stars have not yet been observed astronomically. They may have been huge and non-metallic with very short lifetimes compared to most stars we see todayso they commonly finish burning their hydrogen fuel and explode as supernovae after mere millions of years. Other theories suggest that they may have included small stars, some perhaps still burning today.
In either case, these early generations of supernovae created most of the everyday elements we see around us today, and seeded the universe with them.
Galaxy clusters and superclusters emerge over time. At some point, high energy photons from the earliest stars, dwarf galaxies and perhaps quasars led to a period of reionization.
The universe gradually transitioned into the universe we see around us today, and the Dark Ages only fully came to an end at about 1 billion years. The universe as it appears today.Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Garmin Colorado Bilingual Handheld GPS Unit with North American Maps at initiativeblog.com Read .
Unit: The Period of Realism and Naturalism () (*)Print out your grading sheet for the second quarter or use the grades-for-american-literature-2nd-quarter. Vocabulary. Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Exploring America by Ray Notgrass is an American history high school curriculum.
It provides one full-year of credit in American history, English (literature and composition), and Bible. It provides one full-year of credit in American history, English (literature and composition), and Bible.
Answer to Graded Assignment ENGA/A: American Literature | Unit 8 | Lesson 1: Assignment Instructions After reading The Great Gatsby by F.
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Rhetorical Figures in Sound. + short audio and video clips illustrating stylistic figures of speech ranging from alliteration to initiativeblog.com are taken from speeches, movies, sermons, and sensational media events and delivered by politicians, actors, preachers, athletes, and other notable personalities.